Bertrand Russell

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Writings by Russell

This is an online collection of some of Russell’s books and articles.
For a complete list of Russell’s books and articles see our online bibliography .


These essays, mostly book reviews, are Russell’s earliest professional writings.

Review of G Heymans, Die Gesetze und Elemente des wissenschaftlichen Denken, Mind, n.s. 4, no. 14 (Apr 1895), 245-9

Review of G. Lechalas, Étude sur l’espace et le temps, Mind, n.s. 5, no. 17 (Jan 1896), 128

The A Priori in Geometry,” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, o.s.3, no.2 (1895-6), 97-112

Review of L. Couturat, De l’Infini mathématique, Mind, n.s. 6, no. 21 (Jan 1897), 112-19

Review of J. Schmöle, Die Sozialdemokratischen Gewerkschafen in Deutschland seit dem Sozialisten-Gesetzes, The Economic Journal 7 (Mar 1897), 94-5

Review of E. Goblot, Essai sur la classification des sciences, Mind, n.s. 7, no. 28 (Oct 1898), 567-8

Review of A. Meinong, Über die Bedeutung des Weberschen Gesetzes, Mind, n.s. 8, no. 30 (Apr 1899), 251-6

Review of J. Schultz, Psychologie der Axiome, Mind, n.s. 9, no. 33 (Jan 1900), 120-1

Review of Boutroux, L'Imagination et les mathématiques selon Descartes, Mind, n.s. 10, no. 38 (Apr 1901), 274

Review of Kant, Cosmogony, Mind, n.s. 10, no. 39 (Jul 1901), 405-7

The Teaching of Euclid,” The Mathematical Gazette 2 (May 1902), 165-7

The Free Man’s Worship,” The Independent Review 1 (Dec 1903), 415-24  Repr. ML   pdf

Review of G.E. Moore, Principia Ethica, The Cambridge Review 25 (Dec 3 1903), lit. sup. 37-8

Literature of the Fiscal Controversy,” The Independent Review 1 (Jan 1904), 684-8 Lit Review

Review of Louis Couturat, ed., Opuscules et fragments inédits de Leibniz, Mind, n.s. 13, no. 49 (Jan 1904), 131-2

Review of L.J. Delaporte, Essai philosophique sur les géométries non-Euclidiennes, Mind, n.s. 13, no. 49 (Jan 1904), 132-3

Mr. Charles Booth’s Proposals for Fiscal Reform,” The Contemporary Review 85 (Feb 1904), 198-206

The Meaning of Good,” The Independent Review 2 (Mar 1904), 328-33  Review of G.E. Moore, Principia Ethica

On History,” The Independent Review 3 (Jul 1904), 207-15  Repr. PE

Religion and Metaphysics,” The Independent Review 9 (Apr 1906), 109-16  Review of McTaggart, Some Dogmas of Religion

A History of Free Thought,” The Tribune (London) Jun 4 1906, 2  Review of Robertson, A Short History of Freethought, Ancient and Modern

Free Thought, Ancient and Modern,” The Speaker, n.s. 14 (Aug 4 1906), 402-3  Review of Robertson, A Short History of Freethought

The Development of Morals,”The Independent Review 12 (Feb 1907), 204-10  Review of Hobhouse, Morals in Evolution

To the Electors of the Wimbledon Division of Surrey” (May 3 1907) Election Leaflet. (pdf here)

The Politics of a Biologist,” The Albany Review (London) n.s. 2 (Oct 1907), 89-98  Review of Chatterton-Hill, Heredity and Selection in Sociology

Two Short Pieces on Politics and Women’s Suffrage: “After the Second Reading” and “Mr. Asquith’s Pronouncement”

Liberalism and Women’s Suffrage,” The Contemporary Review 94 (Jul 1908), 11-16

Biology and Politics,” The Nation (London) 3 (Sep 26 1908), 918, 920  Review of George Chatterton-Hill, Heredity and Selection in Sociology

Should Suffragists Welcome the People’s Suffrage Federation?The Common Cause (Manchester) 1 (Dec 9 1909), 463-4

Anti-Suffragist Anxieties (1910) Political pamphlet in which Russell demolishes every possible argument against giving women the vote

Memories and Studies,” The Cambridge Review 33 (Nov 16 1911), 118  Review of William James, Memories and Studies, (Longmans, 1911)

The Professor’s Guide to Laughter,” The Cambridge Review 33 (Jan 18 1912), 193-4  Review of Bergson’s Laughter, an Essay (Macmillan, 1911)

Review of G.M. Trevelyan, Clio, a Muse, The Cambridge Review 35 (Dec 4 1913), 189-90


The Axiom of Infinity,” Hibbert Journal 2, no. 4 (Jul 1904), 809-12  Reply to Keyser, “The Axiom of Infinity, ” Hibbert Journal 2, no. 3 (Apr 1904), 532-52  Repr. EA

The Existential Import of Propositions,” Mind, n.s. 14, no. 55 (Jul 1905), 398-401  Repr. EA

On Denoting,” Mind, n.s. 14, no. 56 (Oct 1905), 479-93  Repr. LK

What Is Truth?The Independent Review 9 (Jun 1906), 349-53  Review of Joachim, The Nature of Truth

The Nature of Truth,” Mind, n.s. 15, no. 60 (Oct 1906), 528-33

“ ‘If’ and ‘Imply,’ a Reply to Mr. MacColl,” Mind, n.s. 17, no. 66 (Apr 1908), 300-1

Mr. Haldane on Infinity,” Mind, n.s. 17, no. 66 (Apr 1908), 238-42

“L'importance philosophlque de la logistique,” Revue de metéphysique et de morale 19 (May 1911), 281-91  Repr. as “The Philosophical Implications of Mathematical Logic” in AE

The Problems of Philosophy (London: Williams & Norgate, 1912).

Review of The Problems of Philosophy, by Bernard Bosanquet. Mind (Oct 1912)

Letter From Bertrand RussellJournal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Methods 12, no. 14 (Jul 8, 1915)  Russell asserts that for him sense-data are physical objects

Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy  Kevin Klement’s magisterial online edition of Russell’s best book  An informal account of the mathematics and logic of Principia Mathematica

The Philosophy of Logical Atomism, The Monist (Oct 1918, Jan, April, July 1919)

Lecture 1: “Facts and Propositions,” The Monist 28 (Oct 1918), 495-509

Lecture 2: “Particulars, Predicates and Relations

Lecture 3: “Atomic and Molecular Propositions

Lecture 4: “Propositions and Facts with More Than One Verb

Lecture 5: “General Propositions and Existence

Lecture 6: “Descriptions and Incomplete Symbols

Lecture 7: “The Theory of Types and Symbolism: Classes

Lecture 8: “Excursus in Metaphysics: What There Is

Note on C.D. Broad’s Article in the July Mind”Mind, n.s., vol. 28, no. 119 (Jan 1919), 124

The Broad article referred to can be downloaded as pdf here

Theory of KnowledgeEncyclopaedia Britannica, 13th ed. (1926)

Two Russell reviews of A. J. Ayer’s, Language, Truth and Logic

“Philosophy and Grammar” Review of A.J. Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic. The London Mercury 33 (Mar 1936), 541-3.

Review of A.J. Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic, 2nd ed. Horizon 15 (Jan 1947): 71-2.


The Elements of Ethics” (1910) Russell’s early moral objectivism and good summary of Moore’s Ethica Principia.

The Ethics of WarInternational Journal of Ethics 2, no. (Jan 1915)
Russell on just war theory and an early expression of his moral subjectivism.

Non-Resistance and the Present War,” by Ralph Barton Perry, International Journal of Ethics (Apr 1915)  Reply to Russell

The War and Non-ResistanceInternational Journal of Ethics (Oct 1915) 
Rejoinder to Perry

War and Non-ResistanceAtlantic Monthly (Aug 1915)

Adsum qui Feci” (trans.: “Here I am. I did it.”) The Times, May 17 1916, p.9

Dreams and FactsThe Athenaeum, nos. 4,642-3 (Apr 18, 25 1919). Repr. Sceptical Essays

How I Came by My CreedThe Realist 1, no.6 (Sep 1929), 14-29  Also as “What I Believe,” The Forum 82 (Sep 1929), 129-34  An important autobiographical essay by Russell

The Last Survivor of a Dead EpochThe Listener 16 (Aug 12 1936), 289  Repr. as “Obituary” UE  An “auto-obituary” written by Russell in 1936

Philosophy for LaymenUniversities Quarterly 1 (Nov 1946)  Russell’s best statement of what philosophy should be

The Russell-Einstein Manifesto” (Jul 9 1955)

The Russell-Einstein Manifesto Press Conference (audio)

The Divorce of Science and Culture,” The UNESCO Courier 11, no.2 (Feb 1958), 4  Russell’s Kalinga prize acceptance speech


German Social Democracy (London: Longmans, Green, 1896)

Review of German Social Democracy, The Westminster Review 147 (Mar 1897)
An Essay on the Foundations of Geometry (1897)

The Principles of Mathematics (1903)

Principia Mathematica, 1st ed., vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3 (1910-13)

Combined tables of contents of vols. 1, 2, and 3 of PM, 1st ed. (pdf here)

Preface, Principia Mathematica, 1st ed. (pdf here)
Our Knowledge of the External World (1914)

Justice in War-Time (1916)

Why Men Fight (1917)

Political Ideals (1917)

Proposed Roads to Freedom: Socialism, Anarchism and Syndicalism (1917)

Mysticism and Logic and Other Essays (1919)

The Problem of China (1920)

The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism (1921)

The Analysis of Mind (1921)

Free Thought and Official Propaganda (1922)

Icarus, or The Future of Science (1924)

The Conquest of Happiness (1930)

Prevent the Crime of Silence (1971) Reports from the International War Crimes Tribunal.


Education as a Political Institution,” Atlantic Monthly, Jun 1916

The Future of Man, The Atlantic Monthly, Mar 1951

Introduction to Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1922)

Why I Am Not A Christian” (London: Watts & Co, 1927) Famous essay, first published as a pamphlet.

On the Value of Scepticism” (1928) Introduction to Sceptical Essays.

Has Religion Made Useful Contributions to Civilization?” A Little Blue Book (Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius, 1929) A pamphlet.

The Bomb and CivilizationForward 39, no. 43 (Aug 1945) A hypertext of Russell’s first anti-nuclear writing.

Am I an Atheist or an Agnostic?The Literary Guide and Rationalist Review 64 (Jul 1949)

What Desires Are Politically Important?” (1950) Russell’s Nobel prize acceptance speech.

What I Have Lived For,” Prologue to The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell (1967)

Last Essay: “1967

The Congo”:  excerpt from Freedom and Organization 1814–1914 (1934), Chapter XXXI, Imperialism

A Liberal Decalogue” (1951)

The Theologian’s Nightmare” (1961)

The Twilight of Science: Is the Universe Running Down” (1929)

Why I Am A Rationalist