Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge
The following six Lectures were delivered at the London School of Economics and Political Science in February and March 1896. They are not intended to supply a full history of Social Democracy in Germany, but rather to bring into relief those aspects of such a history which seemed to the author to have been the most important in producing the present political situation. The principle of selection, accordingly, has been throughout to emphasise the events and the speculations which have led to the actual state of feeling. Thus in treating of Marx, I have confined myself to those parts of his work which have chiefly influenced Socialistic opinion in Germany, and have treated very slightly the second and third volumes of Das Kapital, which have not yet, so far as I was able to discover, had any considerable influence in modifying the effects of the first volume.
Again, in the Lecture on Lassalle, I have laid far more stress on his debts to Marx than on those to Rodbertus; not because the latter were less important in Lassalle himself, but because, so far as his political effect is concerned, the views he owed to Rodbertus had little result; while those which came from Marx, on the contrary, bore good fruit, both directly and indirectly, in the subsequent growth of Social Democracy.
My acknowledgments are due to my wife for constant help, both by criticism and by collection of material; also to all the German Socialists, whether leaders or followers, with whom I have come in contact, for their uniform courtesy, and for their kind assistance in supplying information.
A bibliography of the principal works consulted is appended.
Marx and the Theoretic Basis of Social Democracy
1. Marx’s training, 1
2. The Communist Manifesto, 1848, the materialistic theory of history, 10
3. Marx’s economic theory, as set forth in his “Capital,” 1867, 15
1 . Marx a student, not an agitator. He views first brought home to the working
2. Brief review of German conditions up to the time of Lassalle’s agitation, 42
3. Lassalle’s writings and agitation, 1863 and 1864. The Universal German
4. Lassalle’s sources: Rodbertus and Marx, 64
5. Lassalle’s character and the results of his work. His effect chiefly emotional, 66
History of German Socialism From the Death of Lassalle to the Passing of the Exceptional Law, 1878
1. The various organisations and their development towards Marxianism, 69
2. The Franco-Prussian War. Consequent check to Social Democracy, 81
Social Democracy Under the Exceptional Law, 1878-1890
1. Principal Motives of popular enmity to Social Democracy, 92
2. Principal Provisions of the Exceptional Law, 100
3. Administration of the Exceptional Law, and attitude of official leaders
4. Bismarck’s State-Socialism, and consequent conflict between leaders
5. A policeman’s view of Socialism and the Exceptional Law, 109
6. Agitation under the Exceptional Law. Increase of Socialist Vote.
Organisation, Agitation, Tactics and Programme of Social Democracy Since the Fall of the Socialist Law
1. Organisation, as determined by Annual Congress of 1890. Recent dissolutions
2. Methods of agitation, 127
3. Discussion of Tactics at Annual Congress of 1891. Two opposite tendencies,
4. The Erfurt Programme adopted at the Annual Congress of 1891, 136
The Present Position of Social Democracy
1. The various political parties of Germany, their programmes and strength.
2. The Agrarian Difficulty, 152
3. Conclusion, 163
Social Democracy and the Woman Question in Germany
By Alys Russell, B.A.
Bibliography and Index