Bertrand Russell

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Online Books and Articles

This is an online collection of over one hundred books and articles by Bertrand Russell.

For a complete list of Russell’s books and articles see our online Russell bibliography. We also maintain a chronology of Russell’s life and an introduction to his analytic philosophy.


These first essays, mostly book reviews, are Russell’s earliest professional writings.

Review of G Heymans, Die Gesetze und Elemente des wissenschaftlichen Denken, Mind, n.s. 4, no. 14 (Apr 1895), 245-9

Review of G. Lechalas, Étude sur l’espace et le temps, Mind, n.s. 5, no. 17 (Jan 1896), 128

The A Priori in Geometry,” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, o.s.3, no.2 (1895-6), 97-112

Review of L. Couturat, De l’Infini mathématique, Mind, n.s. 6, no. 21 (Jan 1897), 112-19

Review of J. Schmöle, Die Sozialdemokratischen Gewerkschafen in Deutschland seit dem Sozialisten-Gesetzes, The Economic Journal 7 (Mar 1897), 94-5  On German Trade Unions

Review of E. Goblot, Essai sur la classification des sciences, Mind, n.s. 7, no. 28 (Oct 1898), 567-8

Review of A. Meinong, Über die Bedeutung des Weberschen Gesetzes, Mind, n.s. 8, no. 30 (Apr 1899), 251-6

Review of J. Schultz, Psychologie der Axiome, Mind, n.s. 9, no. 33 (Jan 1900), 120-1

Review of Boutroux, L’Imagination et les mathématiques selon Descartes, Mind, n.s. 10, no. 38 (Apr 1901), 274

Review of Kant, Cosmogony, Mind, n.s. 10, no. 39 (Jul 1901), 405-7

The Teaching of Euclid,” The Mathematical Gazette 2 (May 1902), 165-7

The Free Man’s Worship,” The Independent Review 1 (Dec 1903), 415-24  Repr. ML  Spanish translation, "El Culto del Hombre Libre" by Jose Melgarejo (2023)

Review of G.E. Moore, Principia Ethica, The Cambridge Review 25 (Dec 3 1903), lit. sup. 37-8

Literature of the Fiscal Controversy,” The Independent Review 1 (Jan 1904), 684-8 Lit Review

Review of Louis Couturat, ed., Opuscules et fragments inédits de Leibniz, Mind, n.s. 13, no. 49 (Jan 1904), 131-2

Review of L.J. Delaporte, Essai philosophique sur les géométries non-Euclidiennes, Mind, n.s. 13, no. 49 (Jan 1904), 132-3

Mr. Charles Booth’s Proposals for Fiscal Reform,” The Contemporary Review 85 (Feb 1904), 198-206

The Meaning of Good,” The Independent Review 2 (Mar 1904), 328-33  Review of G.E. Moore, Principia Ethica

On History,” The Independent Review 3 (Jul 1904), 207-15  Repr. PE

Religion and Metaphysics,” The Independent Review 9 (Apr 1906), 109-16  Review of McTaggart, Some Dogmas of Religion

A History of Free Thought,” The Tribune (London) Jun 4 1906, 2  Review of Robertson, A Short History of Freethought, Ancient and Modern

Free Thought, Ancient and Modern,” The Speaker, n.s. 14 (Aug 4 1906), 402-3  Review of Robertson, A Short History of Freethought

The Development of Morals,” The Independent Review 12 (Feb 1907), 204-10  Review of Hobhouse, Morals in Evolution

Spinoza’s Moral Code,” The Nation (London) 1 (Apr 13 1907), 276  Review of Picton, Spinoza: A Handbook to the Ethics

To the Electors of the Wimbledon Division of Surrey” (May 3 1907) Election Leaflet. (pdf here)

The Politics of a Biologist,” The Albany Review (London) n.s. 2 (Oct 1907), 89-98  Review of Chatterton-Hill, Heredity and Selection in Sociology

After the Second Reading,” Women’s Franchise (London) 1 (Mar 12 1908), 429  On the women’s enfranchisement bill

Mr. Asquith’s Pronouncement,” Women’s Franchise (London) 1 (May 28 1908), 565

Liberalism and Women’s Suffrage,” The Contemporary Review 94 (Jul 1908), 11-16

Biology and Politics,” The Nation (London) 3 (Sep 26 1908), 918, 920  Review of George Chatterton-Hill, Heredity and Selection in Sociology

Should Suffragists Welcome the People’s Suffrage Federation?The Common Cause (Manchester) 1 (Dec 9 1909), 463-4

Anti-Suffragist Anxieties (1910) Political pamphlet in which Russell demolishes every possible argument against giving women the vote  The best thing Russell ever wrote

SpinozaThe Nation (London) 8 (Nov 12 1910), 278, 280  Review of Spinoza’s Ethics, White and Stirling translation

Memories and Studies,” The Cambridge Review 33 (Nov 16 1911), 118  Review of William James, Memories and Studies, (Longmans, 1911)

The Professor’s Guide to Laughter,” The Cambridge Review 33 (Jan 18 1912), 193-4  Review of Bergson’s Laughter, an Essay (Macmillan, 1911)

Review of G.M. Trevelyan, Clio, a Muse, The Cambridge Review 35 (Dec 4 1913), 189-90


German Social Democracy  London: Longmans, Green, 1896  (pdf here)

Anonymous review of German Social Democracy, The Westminster Review 147 (Mar 1897)

An Essay on the Foundations of Geometry  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1897

Are Euclid’s Axioms Empirical?” Revue de metàphysique et de morale 6 (Nov 1898), 759-76  Trans. Papers 2  Reply to Couturat’s review of Russell’s Essay on the Foundations of Geometry

The Axioms of Geometry,” Revue de metàphysique et de morale 7 (Nov 1899), 684-707  Trans. Papers 2  Reply to Poincaré’s review of Russell’s Essay on the Foundations of Geometry

A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1900

Recent Work on the Principles of Mathematics,” The International Monthly 4 (Jul 1901), 83-101 Repr. as “Mathematics and the Metaphysicians,” in ML, 1918

The Principles of Mathematics  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1903  Repr. 1931 with a new introduction by Russell  (pdf here)

The Axiom of Infinity,” Hibbert Journal 2, no. 4 (Jul 1904), 809-12  Reply to Keyser, “The Axiom of Infinity, ” Hibbert Journal 2, no. 3 (Apr 1904), 532-52  Repr. EA

Meinong’s Theory of Complexes and Assumptions” (parts 1-3), Mind, n.s. 13, nos. 50, 51, 52 (Apr, Jul, Oct 1904), 204-19, 336-54, 509-24  A review essay of Meinong’s 1899 article “On Objects of Higher Order” and his 1902 book Über Annahmen

The Existential Import of Propositions,” Mind, n.s. 14, no. 55 (Jul 1905), 398-401  Repr. EA

On Denoting,” Mind, n.s. 14, no. 56 (Oct 1905), 479-93  Repr. LK

Review of Meinong and Others, Untersuchungen zur Gegenstandstheorie und Psychologie, Mind, n.s. 14, no. 56 (Oct 1905), 530-538

What Is Truth?The Independent Review 9 (Jun 1906), 349-53  Review of Joachim, The Nature of Truth

Review of Meinong, Über die Erfahrungsgrundlagen unseres Wissens, Mind, n.s. 15, no. 59 (Jul 1906), 412-415

The Nature of Truth,” Mind, n.s. 15, no. 60 (Oct 1906), 528-33

Review of Meinong, Über die Stellung der Gegenstandstheorie in System der Wissenschaften, Mind, n.s. 16, no. 63 (Jul 1907), 436-439

The Study of Mathematics,” The New Quarterly 1 (Nov 1907) Repr. PE, 1910; ML, 1918

“ ‘If’ and ‘Imply,’ a Reply to Mr. MacColl,” Mind, n.s. 17, no. 66 (Apr 1908), 300-1

Mr. Haldane on Infinity,” Mind, n.s. 17, no. 66 (Apr 1908), 238-42

Philosophical Essays  London: Longmans, Green, 1910    Revised ed., London: George Allen & Unwin, 1966

Principia Mathematica, with Alfred North Whitehead, 3 volumes  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1910-3  Revised ed., 1925-7

Principia Mathematica, 1st ed., vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3 (1910-13)

Combined tables of contents of vols. 1, 2, and 3 of PM, 1st ed. (pdf here)

Preface, Principia Mathematica, 1st ed. (pdf here)

The Philosophical Implications of Mathematical LogicRevue de metéphysique et de morale 19 (May 1911), 281-91  Repr. in AE

The Problems of Philosophy (London: Williams & Norgate, 1912)  Russell’s most popular book on analytic philosophy

Review of Russell’s Problems of Philosophy by Bernard Bosanquet, Mind (Oct 1912)

On the Notion of Cause,” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, n.s., 13 (1912-13)  Repr. ML

Science as an Element in Culture,” The New Statesman 1 (May 24 & 31, 1913)  Repr. ML

Mysticism and Logic,” The Hilbert Journal 12 (July 1914), 780-803  Repr. ML

The Relation of Sense-Data to Physics,” Scientia No. 4, 1914  Repr. ML, 1918

Russell’s Preface to Poincaré’s Science and Method, London, Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1914

On Scientific Method in Philosophy, the Herbert Spencer lecture delivered Nov 1914, published as a pamphlet by the Clarenden Press, 1914  Repr. ML, 1918

Our Knowledge of the External World as a Field for Scientific Method in Philosophy. Chicago: Open Court, 1914    Revised ed., London: George Allen & Unwin, 1926

(Google version) Our Knowledge of the External World (1914)

The Ultimate Constituents of Matter,” The Monist July 1915  Repr. ML, 1918

Letter to the Journal of Philosophy, Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Methods 12, no. 14 (Jul 8, 1915)  Russell asserts that for him sense-data are physical objects

Mysticism and Logic and Other Essays  London: Longmans, Green, 1918

Preface” to Mysticism and Logic and Other Essays, 1918

Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy, 1919  Kevin Klement’s online edition of Russell’s best book  Russell’s informal account of the mathematics and logic of Principia Mathematica

The Philosophy of Logical Atomism, The Monist (Oct 1918, Jan, April, July 1919)  Russell’s most important book for linguistic analytic philosophers - complete and online

Note on C.D. Broad’s Article in the July Mind”Mind, n.s., vol. 28, no. 119 (Jan 1919), 124

The Broad article referred to can be downloaded as pdf here

Russell’s Introduction to Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Kegan Paul, 1922

Theory of KnowledgeEncyclopaedia Britannica, 13th ed. (1926)

Two Russell reviews of A. J. Ayer’s, Language, Truth and Logic

“Philosophy and Grammar” Review of A.J. Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic. The London Mercury 33 (Mar 1936), 541-3.

Review of A.J. Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic, 2nd ed. Horizon 15 (Jan 1947): 71-2.


The Ethics of WarInternational Journal of Ethics 2, no. (Jan 1915)
Russell on just war theory and an early expression of his moral subjectivism.

Non-Resistance and the Present War,” by Ralph Barton Perry, International Journal of Ethics (Apr 1915)  Reply to Russell

The War and Non-ResistanceInternational Journal of Ethics (Oct 1915) 
Rejoinder to Perry

War and Non-ResistanceAtlantic Monthly (Aug 1915)

Adsum qui Feci” (trans.: “Here I am. I did it.”) The Times, May 17 1916, p.9

Dreams and FactsThe Athenaeum, nos. 4,642-3 (Apr 18, 25 1919)  Repr. Sceptical Essays

Democracy and Direct ActionThe Dial 66:445-8 (May 3, 1919)  Repr. Daniel Bloomfield (ed.), Selected Articles on Modern Industrial Movements, H.W. Wilson, 1919

Free Thought and Official Propaganda  New York: B. W. Huebsch Inc., 1922

Why I Am Not a Christian, London, Watts & Co., 1927  First published as a pamphlet for the Rationalist Press Association Limited

How I Came by My CreedThe Realist 1, no.6 (Sep 1929), 14-29  Also as “What I Believe,” The Forum 82 (Sep 1929), 129-34  An important autobiographical essay by Russell

The Last Survivor of a Dead EpochThe Listener 16 (Aug 12 1936), 289  Repr. as “Obituary” UE  An “auto-obituary” written by Russell in 1936

Philosophy for LaymenUniversities Quarterly 1 (Nov 1946)  Russell’s best statement of what philosophy should be

Nature and Origin of Scientific Method,” BBC broadcast transcript, The Listener 39 (May 27 1948), 865-6

Scepticism and Tolerance,” BBC broadcast transcript, The Listener 40 (Sep 23 1948), 452-3

A Liberal Decalogue” (1951)

What Is Democracy?  A Batchworth Press Background Book, 1953  Repr. FF, 78-110

Education for a Difficult World,” Fact and Fiction, 1961  First published as “Education’s Place in a New Age,” Saturday Night (Toronto), 68, no. 22 (Mar 7 1953), 1, 7-8

The Russell-Einstein Manifesto” (Jul 9 1955)

The Russell-Einstein Manifesto Press Conference (audio), Jul 9 1955

The Story of Colonization,” a BBC European Service talk, Jul 1956  Repr. FF, 120-26

The Pros and Cons of Nationalism,” written for, and rejected by, the New York Times in 1956; first published in Fact and Fiction in 1961

Population Pressure and War,” in The Human Sum, ed. C.H. Rolph, London, Heinemann, 1957  Repr. FF

The Reasoning of Europeans,” a BBC Overseas Service talk, 1957  Repr. FF

The Divorce of Science and Culture,” The UNESCO Courier 11, no.2 (Feb 1958), 4  Russell’s Kalinga prize acceptance speech

University Education,” Arkansas University Alumnus, 1960 Repr. FF, 120-26

What I Have Lived For,” Prologue to The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell (1967)


Justice in War-Time (1916)

Why Men Fight (1917)

Political Ideals (1917)

Proposed Roads to Freedom: Socialism, Anarchism and Syndicalism (1917)

The Problem of China (1920)

The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism (1921)

The Analysis of Mind (1921)

Free Thought and Official Propaganda (1922)

Icarus, or The Future of Science (1924)

The Conquest of Happiness (1930)

Prevent the Crime of Silence (1971) Reports from the International War Crimes Tribunal.


Education as a Political Institution,” Atlantic Monthly, Jun 1916

The Future of Man, The Atlantic Monthly, Mar 1951

The Bomb and CivilizationForward 39, no. 43 (Aug 1945) A hypertext of Russell’s first anti-nuclear writing.

What Desires Are Politically Important?” (1950) Russell’s Nobel prize acceptance speech.

Last Essay: “1967

The Congo”:  excerpt from Freedom and Organization 1814–1914 (1934), Chapter XXXI, Imperialism

The Twilight of Science: Is the Universe Running Down” (1929)